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Grade Introduction:
C-20 carbon steel is an unalloyed low carbon mild steel grade supplied as a hot rolled or bright drawn finish bar. As a low carbon steel grade, it provides low strength with good machinability and is suitable for welding.
 
Grade Application:
Commonly used for general engineering C-20 is suitable for applications such as bolts, shafts, spacers, hubs, base plates, brackets. fixtures and jigs.
 
Equivalent grades:
Stocked Product
 
BS 970:1955
 
British Standards
 
European
 
Werksoff
 
SAE/AISI
 
Lesser
 
Greater
 
070M20 (070)
 
EN3A
 
EN32
 
080A15
 
C15
 
C20
 
ST52-3(ST5)
 
S235(S23)
 
S275(S27 & S28)
 
1.0402
 
1.0401
 
1.1151
 
1020
 
1023
 
 
LF2 (LF2)
 
 
Addition to other grades:
MS, EN1A, EN3B, EN8, EN8D, EN9, EN19, EN24, EN31, EN32B, EN36C, EN41B, EN43B, EN47, EN353, IS2062, 42Crmo4, OHNS, HCHCR, D2, D3, H-11, H-13, CW-1, M2, M35, M42, 2714, SKD-11, P20, P20+S, P20+Ni, SCM 420, ASTM SA-36, ASTM SA-105, SAE 1018, SAE 1020, SAE 4140, SAE 8620, 16MNCR5, 20MNCR5, C35, C40, C45, C50, C60, CK45, 20C8, 40C8, 45C8, 55C8, C55MN75, SAE 52100, S40C, S355J2G3.
 
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Chemical composition:
The following table shows the chemical composition of C20 steel:
Element
C
Mn
Si
S
P
Content(%)
0.17-0.23
0.30-0.60
0.10-0.40
≤0.045
≤0.045
 
Mechanical Properties:
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
 
METRIC
 
IMPERIAL
 
Tensile strength
 
425 MPa
 
61600 psi
 
Yield strength
 
360 MPa
 
52200 psi
 
Shear modulus
 
80.0 GPa
 
11600 ksi
 
Bulk modulus
 
140 GPa
 
20300 ksi
 
Elastic modulus
 
190-210 GPa
 
27557-30458 ksi
 
Poisson’s ratio
 
0.27-0.30
 
0.27-0.30
 
Elongation at break
 
0.15
 
0.15
 
Reduction of area
 
0.4
 
0.4
 
Hardness Brinell
 
121
 
121
 
Hardness, Knoop
 
140
 
140
 
Hardness, Rockwell B
 
68
 
68
 
Hardness, Vickers
 
126
 
126
 
Machinability
 
65
 
65
 
 
Hardness:
121

 

Heat treatment:
When hardening C-20 heat treatment temperatures, including the rate of heating, cooling, and soaking times will vary due to factors such as the shape and size of each component. Other considerations during the heat treatment process include the type of furnace, quenching medium, and workpiece transfer facilities.
 
Hardening:
As a low carbon steel C-20 is not ideally suited for heat treatment (EN8 or EN9 may be a better-suited option). If hardening is required heat to a temperature of 880-910°C. Quench in water and temper.
 
Tempering:
 
Physical Properties:
Annealed hardness | HBS: 156 max.
Tensile strength,σb/≥ MPa: 400
Yield strength, σ0.2/≥ MPa: 270
Elongation, δ ≥(%): 27.0
Impact, ≥J /Akv: – 

 

Thermal Properties:
PROPERTIES
METRIC
IMPERIAL
Thermal conductivity
51.9 W/mK
360 BTU in/hr.ft².°F
 
Forging Properties:
 
Stress Reliving:
 
Normalizing:
 
Annealing:
C-20 is commonly supplied bright drawn or as rolled. If annealing is required heat to 880-910°C, furnace cool.
 
Density:
 
Machinability:
Surface ‘ripping’ is more evident in EN3 so lubrication is essential. Fairly high surface speeds should be used with moderate feeds. Screw cutting is easy with cutting oil and achieving a fine finish is achieved with slight polishing. Very nice to weld with good flow and strength.
 
Welding:
 
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