ASTM SA-36 Grade Introduction:
ASTM  SA-36 is the most commonly used mild and hot-rolled steel. It has excellent welding properties and is suitable for grinding, punching, tapping, drilling, and machining processes. The yield strength of ASTM  SA36 is less than that of cold roll C1018, thus enabling ASTM  SA36 to bend more readily than C1018. Normally, larger diameters in ASTM  SA36 are not produced since C1018 hot roll rounds are used.
ASTM SA-36 Grade Application:
ASTM  SA36 steel has the following applications:
  • It is used in bolted, riveted or welded construction of bridges, buildings and oil rigs.
  • It is used in forming tanks, bins, bearing plates, fixtures, rings, templates, jigs, sprockets, cams, gears, base plates, forgings, ornamental works, stakes, brackets, automotive and agricultural equipment, frames, machinery parts.
  • It is used for various parts obtained by flame cutting such as in parking garages, walkways, boat landing ramps and trenches.
ASTM SA-36 Equivalent grades: 
Standard – IS 2062 GR E250 , E350 , E410 AND E450 A / B / BO / BR, A36, etc
Addition to other grades:
MS, EN1A, EN3B, EN8, EN8D, EN9, EN24, EN31, EN32B, EN36C, EN41B, EN43B, EN47, EN353, IS2062, 42Crmo4, HCHCR, D2, D3, H-11, H-13, CW-1, OHNS M2, M35, M42, DIN-1.2714, P20, P20+S, P20+Ni, SCM420, ASTMSA-36, ASTM SA-105 , SAE1018, SAE1010, SAE4140, SAE8620, 16MNCR5, 20MNCR5, C20, C45, C50, C60, CK45, 20C8, 40C8, 45C8, 55C8, C55MN75, SAE52100, S40C, S355J2G3.
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ASTM SA-36 Chemical composition:
The following table shows the chemical composition of ASTM SA-36 steel:
Content (%)
ASTM SA-36 Mechanical Properties:
Mechanical Properties
Tensile Strength, Ultimate
400 – 550 MPa
58000 – 79800 psi
Tensile Strength, Yield
250 MPa
36300 psi
Elongation at Break (in 200 mm)
20.0 %
20.0 %
Elongation at Break (in 50 mm)
23.0 %
23.0 %
Modulus of Elasticity
200 GPa
29000 ksi
Bulk Modulus (typical for steel)
140 GPa
20300 ksi
Poissons Ratio
Shear Modulus
79.3 GPa
11500 ksi
ASTM SA-36 Hardness:
119 – 159
ASTM SA-36 Heat treatment:
1614°C – 1599°C
ASTM SA-36 Hardening:
Hardening at 788°C – 816°C(1450°F-1500°F)
ASTM SA-36 Tempering:
A36 is low carbon steel, it is not suited for heat treatment. So can’t harden. If need hardening, heat to 880-910°C, then quenching in water and temper.
ASTM SA-36 Physical Properties:
Physical Properties
7.85 g/cm3
0.284 lb/in3
ASTM SA-36 Thermal Properties:
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-K   –   50 – 42
Thermal Expansion, µm/m-K   –  11 to 13
ASTM SA-36 Forging Properties:
Preheat slowly, then increase the temperature more rapidly to forging temperature. Then cool slowly
ASTM SA-36 Stress Reliving:
Stress relieving at 677°C – 927°C(1250°F-1700°F)
ASTM SA-36 Normalizing:
Normalizing at 899°C – 954°C (1650°F-1750°F)
ASTM SA-36 Annealing:
Annealing at 843°C – 871°C(1550°F-1600°F)
ASTM SA-36 Density:
7.85 g/cm3
0.284 lb/in3
ASTM SA-36 Machinability:
The machinability rate of ASTM  SA36 is estimated to be 72%, and the average surface cutting feed of ASTM  SA36 is 120 ft/min. Machining of ASTM  SA36 steel is not as easy as that of AISI 1018 steel.
ASTM SA-36 Welding:
ASTM  SA36 steel is easy to weld using any type of welding method, and the welds and joints so formed are of excellent quality.
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