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Grade Introduction:
ASTM  SA-36 is the most commonly used mild and hot-rolled steel. It has excellent welding properties and is suitable for grinding, punching, tapping, drilling, and machining processes. The yield strength of ASTM  SA36 is less than that of cold roll C1018, thus enabling ASTM  SA36 to bend more readily than C1018. Normally, larger diameters in ASTM  SA36 are not produced since C1018 hot roll rounds are used.
 
Grade Application:
ASTM  SA36 steel has the following applications:
  • It is used in bolted, riveted or welded construction of bridges, buildings and oil rigs.
  • It is used in forming tanks, bins, bearing plates, fixtures, rings, templates, jigs, sprockets, cams, gears, base plates, forgings, ornamental works, stakes, brackets, automotive and agricultural equipment, frames, machinery parts.
  • It is used for various parts obtained by flame cutting such as in parking garages, walkways, boat landing ramps and trenches.
 
Equivalent grades: 
Standard – IS 2062 GR E250 , E350 , E410 AND E450 A / B / BO / BR, A36, etc
 
Addition to other grades:
MS, EN1A, EN3B, EN8, EN8D, EN9, EN19, EN24, EN31, EN32B, EN36C, EN41B, EN43B, EN47, EN353, IS2062, 42Crmo4, HCHCR, D2, D3, H-11, H-13, CW-1, M2, M35, M42, 2714, SKD-11, P20, P20+S, P20+Ni, SCM 420, ASTM SA-36, ASTM SA-105, SAE 1018, SAE 1020, SAE 4140, SAE 8620, 16MNCR5, 20MNCR5, C20, C35, C40, C45, C50, C60, CK45, 20C8, 40C8, 45C8, 55C8, C55MN75, SAE 52100, S40C, S355J2G3.
 
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Chemical composition:
The following table shows the chemical composition of ASTM SA-36 steel:
Element
C
Cu
Fe
Mn
P
Si
S
Content (%)
0.25-0.29
0.20
98.0
1.03
0.040
0.280
0.050
 
Mechanical Properties:
Mechanical Properties
Metric
Imperial
Tensile Strength, Ultimate
400 – 550 MPa
58000 – 79800 psi
Tensile Strength, Yield
250 MPa
36300 psi
Elongation at Break (in 200 mm)
20.0 %
20.0 %
Elongation at Break (in 50 mm)
23.0 %
23.0 %
Modulus of Elasticity
200 GPa
29000 ksi
Bulk Modulus (typical for steel)
140 GPa
20300 ksi
Poissons Ratio
0.260
0.260
Shear Modulus
79.3 GPa
11500 ksi
 
Hardness:
119 – 159

 

Heat treatment:
1614°C – 1599°C
 
Hardening:
Hardening at 788°C – 816°C(1450°F-1500°F)
 
Tempering:
A36 is low carbon steel, it is not suited for heat treatment. So can’t harden. If need hardening, heat to 880-910°C, then quenching in water and temper.
 
Physical Properties:
Physical Properties
Metric
Imperial
Density
7.85 g/cm3
0.284 lb/in3
 
Thermal Properties:
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-K   –   50 – 42
Thermal Expansion, µm/m-K   –  11 to 13

 

Forging Properties:
Preheat slowly, then increase the temperature more rapidly to forging temperature. Then cool slowly

 

Stress Reliving:
Stress relieving at 677°C – 927°C(1250°F-1700°F)
 
Normalizing:
Normalizing at 899°C – 954°C (1650°F-1750°F)
 
Annealing:
Annealing at 843°C – 871°C(1550°F-1600°F)
 
Density:
Density
7.85 g/cm3
0.284 lb/in3
 
Machinability:
The machinability rate of ASTM  SA36 is estimated to be 72%, and the average surface cutting feed of ASTM  SA36 is 120 ft/min. Machining of ASTM  SA36 steel is not as easy as that of AISI 1018 steel.
 
Welding:
ASTM  SA36 steel is easy to weld using any type of welding method, and the welds and joints so formed are of excellent quality.
 
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